Periodontology is an area of dentistry concerned with disease of the periodontium. Periodontium refers to the gums, alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament. Periodontium tissue fixes teeth to bones. Periodontium play a key role in the chewing process and phonation, namely the creation of sound. Periodontium related diseases have a significant impact on the aesthetic appearance of a patient. But most of all, untreated inflammation can lead to the patient losing teeth and to the onset of serious diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Problems usually start with the uncontrolled build up of plaque containing bacteria, which initiates the periodontium tissue destruction. The most common periodontum diseases are gum inflammation and periodontum inflammation.
A common cause of periodontium diseases may be a weakened patient health (disorders of the immune or hormone system, diabetes, the use of medicine for epilepsy or anticoagulant, deficiencies resulting from improper diet). Other reasons for the disease include incorrectly conducted dental treatment, incorrectly fitted prosthetics or for example grinding of the teeth. Periodontium will also be affected by smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Most often however health problems are caused by negligence and improper oral hygiene. Plaque and tartar collected on the surface of badly cleansed teeth. Bacteria in the plaque causes disease and initiates the degeneration of periodontium tissues.
Patients often go to a dentist only when a disease is in its advanced stage and when there is a serious threat of losing one or more teeth. Symptoms such as red, bloodshot and swollen gums are often ignored. Usually patients suffering from gum inflammation do not feel any pain and as a result do not feel a necessity to consult a dentist. Even bleeding gums can be perceived to be normal and not a sign of a disease. However this is often a sign of inflammation and in such cases a dentist should be consulted.
More than a half of the world's population suffers from gum inflammation at a level that requires dental care. At least 1/3 of the population suffers from this disease at a moderate or advanced level. This shows how serious periodontum disease is worldwide. It is possible to prevent teeth from the onset of periodontum diseases which may consequently lead to tooth loss. Healthy patients should avoid problems by systematically following these steps:
- Regularly and correctly brushing teeth.
- Cleaning between the teeth using dental floss.
- Using water irrigators.
- Removing plaque and tartar.
- Having regular dental checkups.